Nosema is the most common and widespread disease of adult honey bees. This single-celled parasite lives in the honey bee gut and may cause symptoms like dysentery, and shorten bees' lives. There are two species of nosema, N. apis and N. ceranae, whose symptoms and effects may vary. The dormant stage of Nosema is a long-lived spore which is resistant to temperature extremes and dehydration and may not be killed by freezing the contaminated comb; the active disease is treated by feeding antibiotics.
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